1913: Chinese Educational Commission
In 1868, the Burlingame Treaty was signed between the United States and China. The treaty established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the United States granting China “Most Favored Nations” status. Article VII of the treaty declared, "Chinese subjects shall enjoy all the privileges of the public educational institutions under the control of the government of the United States." Under the direction of what became known as the Chinese Educational Commission, headquartered in Hartford, Conn., a plan was developed to send Chinese students to the United States to study for fifteen years and then return to China in order to serve their homeland. The two Chinese citizens who headed the Commission, Chen Lan-Pin and Yung Wing (who had graduated from Yale in 1854, becoming the first Chinese citizen to graduate from an American university) constituted the first Chinese delegation to the United States. In 1913, Carnegie Corporation of New York made a grant of $200,000 (equal to approximately $4 million in today’s dollars) to the Commission to support Chinese students studying at U.S. colleges and universities.
1918: Americanization Studies
“The Study of Methods of Americanization of Fusion of Native and Foreign-Born” — the Americanization Studies, for short — were undertaken to help ease the assimilation of immigrants. The results went to the federal Bureau of Naturalization and of Education as a first step toward developing national immigration policy, and 10 volumes were published in 1921. Inconsisent with restrictive official immigration policies, they attracted little public attention until demand rose among scholars, decades later.
Shocked to discover that teachers had less financial security than his former office clerks, Andrew Carnegie, through the Corporation, established the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America with a $1 million grant. The association managed retirement accounts, which were jointly funded by teachers and their employers. Now called TIAA-CREF and independently managed, it is one of the world’s largest insurance companies.
1920: National Bureau of Economic Research
The National Bureau of Economic Research was founded to promote a greater understanding of how the economy works. This private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization is dedicated to disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals and the academic community.
1921: Food Research Institute
In 1921, Carnegie Corporation of New York made a grant to Stanford University that established one of the first university-affiliated research institutions in the United States, the Food Research Institute, “to study the production, distribution and consumption of food-stuffs.” The year 2011 will not only mark Carnegie Corporation’s Centennial, but also the 90th anniversary of “The Carnegie Fund” for Stanford University. In 1931, the Corporation made another grant of $750,000 to Stanford “for an endowment,” which was applied toward further support of the Food Research Institute programs. The current value of this fund is $17 million. Today, the fund supports faculty and research within the School of Humanities and Sciences in the area of food production, distribution and consumption, in the original and broad tradition of the Carnegie Fund.
1921: Tuskegee Institute
Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, was founded on July 4, 1881 as a school for freed slaves in the area of Macon County, Alabama. Booker T. Washington, the famed educator, author, orator and political leader, was the first teacher and principal of the school, where he served until his death in 1915. Since that time, Tuskegee has risen to national prominence as an historically black institution that provides both an exemplary liberal arts education as well as a curriculum that emphasizes “the relationship between education and work force preparation in the sciences, professions and technical areas. It is also celebrated for initiating the Tuskegee Airmen flight training program, the all-Black squadrons of Tuskegee Airmen who were highly decorated World War II combat veterans. Carnegie Corporation made its first grant to Tuskegee in 1921, but prior to that, the Corporation’s founder, Andrew Carnegie, had made significant bequests to the Institute. Altogether, the school received around $1.3 million from Andrew Carnegie and his Corporation from 1900, when Andrew Carnegie made his first gift of $20,000 to an endowment for a library building for the school, all the way through to 1963, when the Corporation made a grant to strengthen Tuskegee’s academic program through a $1.5 million allocation to the United Negro College Fund.
1923: American Law Institute
Following a study conducted by a group of prominent teachers, judges and lawyers — including Nobel Prize-winner Elihu Root, the second president of Carnegie Corporation — the American Law Institute was founded to promote the clarification and simplification of the law, to secure the better administration of justice and to encourage legal scholarship.
The Nobel prize in Medicine for the discovery of insulin was awarded to Drs. Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod, who conducted their groundbreaking experiments in a Carnegie Corporation funded laboratory at the University of Toronto.
1924: Chichen Itza
The Corporation provided grants totaling $62,000 between 1924 and 1935 to assist the Corporation’s sister institution, the Carnegie Institution for Science (then called the Carnegie Institution of Washington), with efforts to excavate the Mayan city of Chichen Itza in the Yucatan region of Mexico. Famed aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh played a role in this work, making a number of flights over the area along with Carnegie Institutions archeologists, a trail-blazing step forward in mapping the parameters of an archeological site.
1926: American Association for Adult Education
Dedicated to the belief that lifelong learning contributes to human fulfillment and positive social change, the American Association for Adult Education was established in Cleveland Ohio “to promote the development and improvement of adult education in the U.S.” The Corporation was the organization’s sole funder until 1940.
1927: Brookings Institution
The Brookings Institution began with the merger of the Institute for Government Research, the Institute of Economics, which was founded by Robert Somers Brookings — with the support of a $1 million grant from the Corporation — and a graduate school named for Brookings. Brookings scholars conduct nonpartisan research and analysis on a wide range of public policy issues.
1928: Travel Grants
Corporation President Frederick Keppel believed in connecting people around the world and instituted what would become a travel grants program that endured for 40 years and enabled teachers, librarians, museum curators, university and school administrators, artists, government officials, and scholars from the British Dominions and Colonies to travel to the United States and Canada and, if warranted, to the United Kingdom and Europe. A limited number of travel grants supported visits by Americans who would have something to contribute, particularly in Africa; for example, noted educator John Dewey had a travel grant in 1934 to meet with educators in Africa and to study education issues in different settings. Travel grant recipients didn’t have to produce a book or an article; instead, they needed to make the case that a trip funded under the program would help their work at home. Both men and women were supported. The trips lasted anywhere from about six weeks up to six months. They refreshed and enlarged the horizons for both visitors and hosts.
1928: University of King’s College
The University of King’s College, founded in Windsor, Nova Scotia, in 1789, was the first university to be established in English-speaking Canada. The College was the first to accept and graduate students, to receive a charter, and is the oldest English-speaking Commonwealth university outside the United Kingdom. In 1920, a fire ravaged King's, burning its main building to the ground, raising the question of how or if the College was to survive. Determined to carry on, College leaders requested support from Carnegie Corporation to rebuild not in Windsor but in Halifax, the capital city of Nova Scotia. At the same time, it entered into an association with Dalhousie University, a leading, research-intensive institution in Halifax, which provided students with the opportunity to benefit from the programs and curricula of both schools. In 1928, when it had raised $400,000 in matching funds, the Corporation provided a $600,000 grant that enabled the University of King’s College to embark on its third century of educating students.
1932: Poor White Study
The first Carnegie Corporation Inquiry into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa published the Poor White Study, which was intended to improve the status of nearly 300,000 impoverished Afrikaners. Its unintended consequence was that it helped create the rationale for establishing apartheid government. After decades of withholding support for projects in South Africa, the Corporation began funding challenges to apartheid in the courts, which contributed significantly to the country’s eventual transition to democracy.
1934: Survey of the Architecture of the South
The culmination of Frances Benjamin Johnston’s work as an architectural photographer is the Carnegie Survey of the Architecture of the South, a systematic record of the early buildings and gardens of nine southern states that was executed between 1933 and 1940 with the financial assistance of Carnegie Corporation. Johnston (1864-1952) worked chiefly in Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana and to a lesser degree in Florida. She was one of the first to document vernacular building traditions, photographing not only the great mansions of the South, but churches, graveyards, row houses, offices, kitchens, warehouses, mills, shops, farm buildings, and inns. The survey includes records of severely altered and poorly maintained structures and numerous shots of interiors, furnishings, and architectural details. In recognition of the scope and technical excellence of the Carnegie Survey, the American Institute of Architects presented an honorary membership to Johnston in 1945. In addition, her work on the Carnegie Survey led to a series of grants and photographs of eight other southern states, all of which were given to the Library of Congress for public use. Her work in preserving old and endangered buildings and her collections have been purchased by institutions such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Baltimore Museum of Art.
1935: Munn–Pitt Survey of Australian Libraries
Carnegie Corporation funding to review the quality and status of Australia’s libraries resulted in the Munn-Pitt report of 1935, which described Australia’s libraries as “wretched little institutes” which were “cemeteries of old and forgotten books.” The report made headlines throughout the country and had an enormous impact on the people of Australia, which at the time had the fewest free public libraries of all English-speaking countries. A leading Australian historian and educator, Sir Archibald Grenfell Price, said that it led to a “revolution in Australian libraries,” which included a vigorous free library movement and, beginning in 1939, the passage of Library Acts by each Australian state that provided for the establishment of State Library Boards to promote excellent libraries and library services. Today, there are approximately 550 public library and archive organizations operating through nearly 1,800 locations in Australia, and the country has nearly 7 million active registered borrowers — about one-third of the Australian population.
1944: An American Dilemma
The Corporation enlisted Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal to undertake a two-year landmark study of the condition of the Negro in America. The resulting book, An American Dilemma (1944) was cited in the Supreme Court’s 1954 decision in Brown v. the Board of Education, which ended “separate but equal” education for black children; it also served as a moral wake-up call prior to the civil rights movement.
1939: The City
Made possible by a grant from Carnegie Corporation of New York and produced for the 1939 World’s Fair, The City is a problem-solving documentary that announces the “age of rebuilding is here,” but also warns that Americans must find a balance between working, living, and the land. The force behind the film was its writer, Lewis Mumford, an influential social critic at the time, who saw cities as ultimately de-humanizing but had faith, as the film shows, in the redemptive powers of technology. In the film, sequences focus on a New England village, a mill town, a city, and a “new town,” culminating with a strong suggestion that Mumford’s model “new town” — a small, planned, and in many ways self-sustaining community that provided Americans with jobs they could walk to, along with social services, schools, and shops was the ideal environment for American workers.
1940: Atlanta University School of Library Service
The Atlanta University School of Library Service received a grant of $150,000 from the Corporation in 1940; at the time, it was the only library school established for African Americans who sought to be trained in the library sciences. The story of Atlanta University from 1930 through 1950 includes several noteworthy developments. Dr. Virginia Lacy Jones in her essay, “A Dean’s Career,” in E. J. Josey’s book, The Black Librarian in America, said “the Atlanta University School of Library Service began in the fall of 1941 with 25 carefully selected students.” In the over 60 years that the school continued to train librarians, Dr. Jones continues, this institution of higher education “contributed significantly to the development and improvement of African American school libraries in the South.” In 1988, Atlanta University merged with Clark College to become Clark Atlanta University, a member of the United Negro College Fund.
1947: Educational Testing Service
The Educational Testing Service was founded to act as a single national organization devoted exclusively to educational testing and research, providing a means of measuring academic merit irrespective of social or economic background.
1948: Russian Research Center
The Russian Research Center was established at Harvard University to foster the comprehensive understanding and multidisciplinary study of Russia and the Soviet Union. Prior to the existence of the CIA, the Center provided a way for the United States to become informed about the USSR in its role as a new world power.
1952: “New Math”
In the early 1950s, educators began to criticize the emphasis on memorization and drills in the teaching of mathematics in American classrooms. To address this problem, professors from the Colleges of Education, Engineering and Liberal Arts at the University of Illinois established a Committee on School Mathematics led by Max Beberman, who is now generally regarded as “the father of the New Math,” a major development in the way mathematics was taught that had both adherents and detractors. With Corporation funding, the Committee began to develop textbooks and teacher manuals for a “New Math” curriculum for grades 9 through 12. The goal was to develop the wherewithal necessary for what Beberman described as “teaching meaningful and understandable mathematics.” Beberman believed that achieving this goal required clear language, among other teaching elements, because, he said, “it is easier to discover how to solve equations when you know what an equation and a variable are.” The work of the Illinois group helped lead the way to a thoroughgoing overhaul of the teaching of mathematics.
1956: Foundation Center
The Foundation Center was set up to support and improve philanthropy by promoting public understanding of the field and by providing information, research and training to help grant makers and grant seekers succeed.
1958: The Greenbrier Conference
With the exhilarating rapid movement toward independence in the former British colonies in Africa, the Corporation, which had been the major funder of efforts to advance African education, sought ways to stimulate interest among other foundations and assistance agencies in the United States in order to build support for African development. Toward that end, Corporation leaders organized the "Conference on Problems of Assistance to Tropical African Countries," which took place at the Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulfur Springs, West Virginia, on May 21- 25, 1958. Participants included 23 representatives of American foundations, U.S. government agencies, the private sector and a wide range of British and American experts concerned with Africa. Participants agreed that African higher education institutions were of critical importance for national development. The wide-ranging report that resulted from their discussions recommended areas where either Britain or the U.S. might direct attention, especially focusing on higher education, agricultural productivity, trade and investment, and student scholarships. The "Greenbrier Spirit" infused productive Afro-Anglo–American partnerships, considered the best way to aid the independent and emerging countries. One direct result was the establishment of the Overseas Liaison Committee of the American Council on Education, for many years the primary liaison between the American university community, American foundations and American donor agencies.
1959: American High School Today
Two years after Sputnik raised fears about the quality of U.S. education, American High School Today: A First Report to Interested Citizens was published to garner support for public schools. Author James B. Conant, former president of Harvard, claimed the comprehensive high school, offering a greater variety of courses including languages and vocational training, would best prepare a diverse student body for the future.
1959: The Conant Study
James Conant’s work on U.S. high schools. The American High School Today literally changed the shape of American schools after it came out in 1959. Conant’s Corporation-supported work, popularly known as “The Conant Study,” helped fuel the movement away from small, isolated schools with limited offerings to the modern American high school—which, spurred by innovative educational thinkers who may be viewed as Conant’s successors, is once again being “rethought” in the 21st century. Carnegie Corporation remains deeply involved in this work by supporting efforts to promote and preserve a robust American democracy through grantmaking focused on expanding opportunity through education. The Corporation’s aim is to enable many more students, including historically underserved populations and immigrants, to achieve academic success and perform at the highest levels of creative, scientific and technical knowledge and skill. Of particular concern is helping to build students' college and career readiness by supporting the development of high-performing systems of public secondary schools characterized by high standards, data-driven management and instruction, and high-quality leaders and teachers, among other rigorous and academically challenging innovations.
1960: College-Level Examination Program
With the help of Corporation funding, the College Entrance Examination Board created the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) in 1960. The aim of the 33 different CLEP examinations, each of which is ninety minutes long and consists entirely of multiple-choice questions, is to provide students of any age with the opportunity to demonstrate college-level achievement by earning qualifying scores in subject areas ranging from American Literature to Principles of Macroeconomics to Biology to Information Systems and Computer Applications. CLEP also offers international and home-schooled students a venue for demonstrating their proficiency in subject areas and bypass undergraduate coursework. Another valuable use of CLEP tests is that they can help students who are a few credits shy of graduation to complete their degree programs. In addition, there is wide access to the tests and significant acceptance of the results: CLEP exams are administered at 1,700 colleges and 2,900 colleges and universities grant credit for successful scores.
1963: Educational Resources Center
The Educational Resources Center of the Bank Street College of Education was founded to support the education of students handicapped by poverty and/or segregation, consistent with the Corporation’s major commitment to social justice for minorities, women and especially children. In 2001, Bank Street became part of the Corporation’s reform initiative Teachers for a New Era.
1964: Carnegie Commission on Educational Television
The 15-member Carnegie Commission on Educational Television was established to study the role of noncommercial TV in society. In 1967, it published the landmark report Public Television: A Program for Action, which concluded that the American people needed an educational television system. The report’s recommendations were adopted in the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967. A subsequent grant of $1 million to PBS started an ongoing trend of Corporation support for national and local educational television and radio.
1964: National Assessment of Educational Progress
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), often called “the nation’s report card,” began in 1964 with a grant from Carnegie Corporation of New York to set up the Exploratory Committee for the Assessment of Progress in Education. Today, it is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. Assessments are conducted periodically in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U.S. history. NAEP expects to includes assessments in world history and in foreign language beginning in 2012. As NAEP explains, its results “ are based on representative samples of students at grades 4, 8, and 12 for the main assessments, or samples of students at ages 9, 13, or 17 years for the long-term trend assessments. These grades and ages were chosen because they represent critical junctures in academic achievement.” Describing the development of its work, NAEP reports, “The first national assessments were held in 1969. Voluntary assessments for the states began in 1990 on a trial basis, and in 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007, selected urban districts participated in the assessment on a trial basis.”
1964: White House Fellows Program
John W. Gardner, president of Carnegie Corporation from 1955 to 1967, proposed the idea for a White House Fellows program, an intensive year of work at the highest levels of government for young leaders. Gardner hoped that such a program would cultivate a group of leaders who understand the challenges of national government and are committed to leadership in their communities. In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson established the White House Fellows Program, which was developed with Corporation funding, declaring that a "genuinely free society cannot be a spectator society." Since then more than 500 men and women have served as White House Fellows, going on to distinguished careers in many areas of society. Some have gone into government such as former Secretary of State Colin Powell, former Labor Secretary Elaine Chao, and former United States Senator Timothy Wirth. Others have become leaders in academia, such as Michael Armacost, former president of the Brookings Institution. Still other White House Fellows have enjoyed successful careers in the military and business.
1965: The Chronicle of Higher Education
When the first issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education was published in November 1966 with Corporation support, some questioned whether there was enough news to warrant a paper that focused solely on the activities of colleges and universities. The Chronicle initially was published every other week by a staff of 12, including 7 editors and writers; it had no editorials and no advertising, and its 5,000 subscribers received only 22 issues a year. Today, more than 45 years later, The Chronicle is published online every weekday, produces 43 print issues a year, has a total readership of more than 245,000, and traffic to its web site results in more than 14 million pages a month, seen by over 1.7 million unique visitors. Based in Washington, D.C., The Chronicle now has more than 70 writers, editors, and international correspondents and is the number one source of news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty members and administrators. The impact of The Chronicle on the world of higher education is documented by a range of factors that are not reflected merely by the number of people who read the paper. In the decades since the first issue appeared, the Chronicle has covered topics ranging from cold fusion, to plagiarism to evolution, providing a depth of information and analysis that most of the daily press does not provide. Even today, many newspapers do not often report on higher education from a national perspective, so The Chronicle’s dedication to this work helps to enrich the national conversation about educational issues that affect the strength of our nation and the vitality of our democracy.
1965: Head Start
Head Start is a national program that promotes school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of children through the provision of educational, health, nutritional, social and other services to enrolled children and families. Established in 1965 as part of the “War on Poverty,” Head Start has become the flagship national program for three- to five-year-olds and remains the largest funded program among an array of federal early childhood education and care programs, according to the U.S. Government Accounting Office. The history of Carnegie Corporation’s advocacy on behalf of young children’s care and education is closely intertwined with that of Head Start. Throughout the 1960s, the Corporation supported research that proved crucial in securing and safeguarding federal funds for that groundbreaking program. Since its inception, Head Start has enrolled more than 27 million children.
1969: Sesame Street
Sesame Street debuted on PBS. Based on the results of a Carnegie Corporation-funded study she had conducted to determine whether television could be used to educate young children, Joan Ganz Cooney, then a producer of public affairs programs for National Educational Television, proposed a new kind of children's program and formed the Children’s Television Workshop to produce it, with further Corporation support. Within two months, more than six million children were watching.
1970: Common Cause
John Gardner was president of Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1955 to 1965. Under his leadership there were many notable Corporation achievements including the creation of the White House Fellows program in 1964. He also spurred efforts to strengthen higher education in sub-Saharan Africa. At Gardner's urging, the Corporation supported much of the nation's basic research on cognition, creativity, and the learning process, particularly among young children, in the process linking the fields of psychology and education. With Gardner, Carnegie Corporation entered the era of strategic philanthropy — the planned, organized, deliberately constructed means to attain stated ends. It no longer sufficed to support a socially desirable project; rather, the knowledge must produce concrete results and be communicated to the public, the media, and decision makers with the intention of fostering policy debate. A central objective was to develop programs that might be implemented and scaled up by larger organizations, especially government. His interest in the potential of government to promote societal progress and equality led him to become U.S. Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare in 1965. He later founded two influential national organizations, Common Cause in 1970 and Independent Sector in 1980. In 2010, on the 40th anniversary of Common Cause, Moyers gave a stirring and deeply moving speech about Gardner’s legacy, noting that Gardner said, “Don’t pray for the day when we finally solve our problems. Pray for freedom to continue working on the problems that the future will never cease to throw at us.”
1970: National Public Radio
National Public Radio was created as a private, non-profit organization to provide leadership in national newsgathering and production and offer the first permanent nationwide interconnection of non-commercial stations. Originally made up of 90 public radio stations, today, it claims 800 independently operated, noncommercial stations and 26 million listeners.
1971: Project on the Status and Education of Women
The American Association of Colleges and Universities launched the Project on the Status and Education of Women, which aimed to make the education world aware of federal regulations and statutes concerning women’s educational equality.
1972: Carnegie Council on Children
The Carnegie Council on Children was established to research social, economic and educational influences on child development and related public policy. Its report, All Our Children: The American Family Under Pressure, raised public awareness of the impact of larger social forces on children’s lives and the growing problem of inequality of income and circumstance in American society.
1972: Earl Warren Legal Training Program
In 1969, according to the Winter 1974 Carnegie Quarterly, three black lawyers served an African-American population of about 800,000 in Mississippi. Alabama had 20; Georgia, 34. In an era when many civil rights issues were being fought in the courts, the Corporation was concerned about a lack of black law schools in the south, inadequate education of black students and insufficient funding for their continuing education. As then-senior Corporation program director Eli Evans noted, “It was the black lawyer that was the natural leader in these small towns and communities, for the black community. He would become the most informed civil rights advocate. He would become the most important person with regard to community development work. He would become a political figure in these cities and towns. And if one could increase the number of black lawyers, one could make a significant contribution to the future of the country.” Hence, the Corporation started supporting a variety of programs geared toward helping black southern law students, including the Law Students Civil Rights Research Council and the NAACP’s Earl Warren Legal Training Program. The effects were nearly immediate. By the spring of 1974 — a scant five years after funding had begun (amounting to nearly $6 million from the Corporation and other foundations) — nearly 300 black students had graduated from law schools in the South and another 170 black students were completing their first year at southern law schools.
1972: Legal Defense Funds
The Corporation undertook a new strategy to protect the rights of minorities and secure social change via the courts, giving support to the Native American Rights Fund, the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, and the Mexican American Legal Defense Fund to attain greater equality while building minority leadership.
1973: Children’s Defense Fund
The Children’s Defense Fund, led by Marian Wright Edelman, was established as an independent organization to work toward betterment of children’s lives, particularly poor and minority children and those with disabilities. A private, nonprofit research and advocacy organization, CDF worked closely with the corporation for over 25 years, taking the lead on such legislative landmarks as the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 1988 Family Support Act, and the 1977 Children’s Health Insurance Program.
1973: Pell Grants
Between 1967 and 1973, the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, financed by the Corporation and sponsored by its sister institution, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, conducted a study outlining a massive program of higher education federal assistance. Among other outcomes, the Commission’s recommendations led to the formation of the Federal Pell Grants program. Since 1973, the program, named after Senator Claiborne Pell who was instrumental in its creation, has awarded more than $100 billion in grants to an estimated 30 million postsecondary students. Today, Pell grants are an intrinsic element of higher education funding, but it’s important to remember how revolutionary they really were when the grants were first proposed. Originally, Pell grants, which do not require repayment and are awarded based on a financial need formula determined by Congress, were to be funneled directly to institutions. But with the passage of the Higher Education Act of 1972, which was influenced by the work of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, control of the largest share of financial aid dollars was shifted from institutions to individuals, very much in keeping with the American character. In that way, the grants became portable, meaning they could follow a student from one institution to another if his or her higher education career required that kind of mobility.
The PBS television program NOVA was created with start-up funds from the Corporation and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. It became the most-watched science television series in the world, and is now the longest running.
1974: The Power Broker
Scholar and historian Robert Caro used Corporation support to write the Pulitzer-prize winning biography, The Power Broker, published by Knopf. The Corporation grant help transform Caro’s career. Previously a working journalist, he went on to write a multi-volume biography of Lyndon Johnson, which won Caro a second Pulitzer Prize, among other awards. Caro projects that a new volume, focusing on Johnson’s years as president, will be completed in the next few years. “Caro has a unique place among American political biographers,” according to the Boston Globe. “He has become, in many ways, the standard by which his fellows are measured.” In February 2010, President Barack Obama presented Caro with the National Humanities Medal.
1974: Project on Equal Education Rights
In 1972, Title IX of the federal Education Amendments was passed. The statute declared that “no person in the Untied States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under, any education program of activity receiving federal financial assistance.” After the law was enacted, however, there followed years of what a director in the government’s Office of Civil Rights called “both intended and unintended neglect.” In 1974, the National Organization for Women’s Legal Defense and Education Fund founded the Project on Equal Education Rights (PEER) to make sure the government was actually enforcing Title IX. Beginning in 1977, the Corporation provided PEER with a number of grants to assist its efforts to monitor Title IX, which resulted in an impressive record of improving school compliance with and government enforcement of the law. The law addresses gender equity issues in a number of key areas including Access to Higher Education, Athletics, Career Education, Education for Pregnant and Parenting Students, Employment, Learning Environment, Math and Science, Sexual Harassment, Standardized Testing and Technology. Today, despite all these efforts, thousands of schools across the country still do not fully participate in applying the law to their own programs, so efforts to achieve true gender equity across all levels of schooling in the United States continue.
1977: Carnegie Commission on the Future of Public Broadcasting
The Carnegie Commission on the Future of Public Broadcasting was formed in response to PBS and NPR requests. In 1979, it published the report A Public Trust, with recommendations for reshaping the country’s public broadcasting system.
1978: Centre for Applied Legal Studies
In an era of anti-apartheid activism, the Centre for Applied Legal Studies was set up in Witwatersrand University, South Africa to manage public interest law projects challenging apartheid policies in the courts. These projects had a sustained impact on post-apartheid life.
1982: Second Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty & Development in Southern Africa
Based at the University of Cape Town, the Second Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty & Development in Southern Africa was conducted over a period of eight years. Intended to reveal what life under apartheid really meant, it found most black South Africans endured a far more acute level of poverty than that suffered by the Afrikaners whose conditions had been examined 50 years earlier. The findings were disseminated widely throughout South Africa and internationally, and many people involved in the inquiry went on to assume leadership positions in the post-apartheid government.
1983: Aspen Institute Congressional Program
The Aspen Institute Congressional Program, established in 1983 by former U.S. Senator Dick Clark, is a nongovernmental, nonpartisan educational program for members of the United States Congress. It provides lawmakers with a stronger grasp of critical public policy issues by convening high-level conferences in which legislators — from both parties and both houses — are brought together with internationally recognized academics, experts and leaders. The agenda is devoted to explaining ideas and exploring various policy alternatives. Political neutrality is essential to the educational mission of the program. There is no identification with a political or party viewpoint and no endorsement of specific legislation. The Aspen Institute organizes six retreat programs annually: Political Islam; U.S.–Russia-Europe: Cooperative Efforts; U.S. Policy in Latin America; U.S.–China Relations; and The Challenge of Education Reform. Carnegie Corporation of New York provided the initial grants and continues to fund two of Aspen Institute’s most influential congressional retreat programs: U.S.–Russia and Education Reform.
1983: Avoiding Nuclear War
Noting the escalating dangers of confrontation between nations with nuclear arsenals, the Corporation began the Avoiding Nuclear War program to help fill the gaps in knowledge about the U.S.–Soviet relationship and nuclear policy. The program fostered independent research, policy analysis and dissemination among scientists and policymakers and supported public education about the nuclear threat.
1986: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development
The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development was established to direct public attention to this critical growth stage. Its publication Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century focused national attention on the developmental needs and growing cognitive abilities of young adolescents and the critical importance of creating schools to maximize their positive transitions, close relationships and full participation in society. Middle school reform was in part an outgrowth of this report.
1986: Reading Rainbow
From 1986 to 1993, the Corporation supported Reading Rainbow an award-winning television program aimed at inspiring children to read. Airing on PBS stations from 1983 until 2006, the program received numerous Emmy Awards for “Outstanding Children’s Series,” as well as other broadcast awards. Actor LeVar Burton was the host for much of its run. The program often featured celebrities reading children’s books and suggested books for children to take out of their local library. Other funders included the National Science Foundation, the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations, the Pew Charitable Trusts and the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation.
1987: Center for International Trade and Security
The Center for International Trade and Security, founded with Corporation support, endeavors to promote international peace and global progress through research, training, and outreach focused on reducing the threats posed by commerce in the materials and technology related to weapons of mass destruction. One example of the Center’s work is its focus on strategic trade controls, namely government efforts to regulate and monitor the trade in sensitive weapons and related technologies, which are a critical tool for reducing the risk of dangerous weapons falling into the wrong hands and preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction in the ever-expanding global economy. Other activities include providing information to policymakers, engaging with industry representatives, and educating students and the general public about these issues, which have grown in importance with the rising specter of nuclear terrorism. By virtue of its independent voice and expertise, the Center, which is part of the University of Georgia, adds significant value to work being done to control nuclear proliferation by the UN, the U.S. and the International Atomic Energy Agency.
1987: Prevention of Maternal Mortality Network
The Prevention of Maternal Mortality Network was a decade-long effort launched by Carnegie Corporation in 1987. Corporation funding supported research teams in sub-Saharan Africa committed to undertaking various aspects of maternal health in the context of primary health care, incorporating family planning, child care and other basic health services. Not only was the program one of the largest private sources of funding aimed at improving the health of African women during pregnancy and childbirth, it led to the creation of the Regional Prevention of Maternal Mortality Network, an entirely African entity. In addition, the Corporation’s work helped bring the problem of maternal deaths in Africa to the attention of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which, in 1999, founded the Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program, an initiative that has brought maternal health services to women in more than 50 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia.
1988: Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government
The Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government was established by Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1988 and operated at a high level of activity through 1993. The Commission’s initial efforts focused on assessing (and ultimately improving) the mechanisms used by the federal government and the states to incorporate scientific and technological knowledge into policy and administrative decision making. From this seemingly straightforward set of goals sprang over twenty reports aimed at major institutions of government and areas of public policy. Members of the Commission included prominent scientists, educators, journalists, attorneys and political and business leaders. During the five years of its operation, the Commission completed a series of studies that evaluated an extraordinary range of sweeping issues, from “Science and Technology and the President,” to “Enabling the Future: Linking Science and Technology to Societal Goals.” Today, the Commission’s impact—and its recommendation that the role of the president’s science advisor be enhanced and upgraded—can be seen in the work of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, which has a threefold mission: first, to provide the President and his senior staff with accurate, relevant, and timely scientific and technical advice on all matters of consequence; second, to ensure that the policies of the Executive Branch are informed by sound science; and third, to ensure that the scientific and technical work of the Executive Branch is properly coordinated so as to provide the greatest benefit to society.
1989: Science for All Americans and Benchmarks for Science Literacy
With the Corporation’s support, the American Association for the Advancement of Science issued two groundbreaking reports: Science for All Americans and Benchmarks for Science Literacy (1993). Recognizing that the science taught in the nation’s schools does not adequately prepare students for a high-technology world, the reports recommended a common core of learning in science, mathematics and technology for all citizens.
1990: Committee on Reducing the Nuclear Danger
The Corporation initiated a series of grants to bring together experts concerned with post-Soviet nuclear nonproliferation. The Committee on Reducing the Nuclear Danger was formed first, followed by the Prevention of Proliferation Task Force (funded through grants to the Brookings Institution), whose report influenced development of the 1991 Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. By 2004, this program had brought about the deactivation of almost 8,000 nuclear warheads, missiles, bombers and other deadly weapons and delivery systems.
1991: Task Force on Meeting the Needs of Young Children
The Task Force on Meeting the Needs of Young Children was created to devise a coherent strategy to ensure that children are provided with a healthy start. The report, Starting Points: Meeting the Needs of Our Youngest Children (1994), offered comprehensive recommendations — from preparation for responsible parenthood and improved preventive care, to stronger community supports for families.
1993: The Moscow Center
The Moscow Center was established by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace with funding from the Corporation, to support Russia’s economic recovery and strengthening of its national identity. Intellectual collaboration among scholars and policy experts in Russia and other post-Soviet states as well as other nations, emphasized objective domestic and foreign policy analysis.
1994: The Carter Center
Founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and former First Lady Rosalynn Carter, the Atlanta-based Carter Center has helped to improve the quality of life for people in more than 70 countries. In partnership with Emory University, the Carter Center is committed to advancing human rights and alleviating unnecessary human suffering. Its work is guided by a core set of principles including a commitment to being nonpartisan, acting as a neutral in dispute resolution activities, and focusing on the belief that people can improve their lives when provided with the necessary skills, knowledge, and access to resources. Beginning in 1994, the Center has received a number of grants from the Corporation to aid its efforts to “wage peace, fight disease, and build hope by both engaging with those at the highest levels of government and working side by side with poor and often forgotten people.”
1995: The Brennan Center
The Brennan Center for Justice at the New York University School of Law was founded in 1995 as a “living memorial to Justice William Brennan’s ideals of standing up for the downtrodden.” A non-partisan public policy and law institute, the Center seeks to build upon the late Supreme Court Justice’s work and values by focusing on the fundamental issues of democracy and justice. Its activities range from advancing voting rights to campaign finance reform, from racial justice in criminal law to presidential power in the fight against terrorism. A singular institution — part think tank, part public interest law firm, part advocacy group — the Brennan Center combines scholarship, legislative and legal advocacy, and communications in its efforts to win meaningful, measurable change in the public sector.
The goal of Guidestar (www.guidestar.org), the first central source of information about nonprofit groups in the United States, is to improve the dissemination and availability of information about charities and philanthropies. Through the Guidestar database, users can access information about nearly two million organizations and nearly five million Form 990 images — all at no charge. Over eight million people visit the site every year. Along with Atlantic Philanthropies and the David and Lucile Packard, Ford, William & Flora Hewlett, W.K. Kellogg, Surdna, Skoll, Omidyar and Charles Stewart Mott foundations, the Corporation helped to sustain Guidestar through the first years of its operation. In defining their mission, Guidestar notes that they are dedicated to making as much information available about the nonprofit sector as they can because “The best possible decisions are made when donors, funders, researchers, educators, professional service providers, governing agencies, and the media use the quality information that we provide. Those decisions affect our world today and will continue to affect it for generations to come.”
1996: The Hechinger Institute
With the help of Corporation funding, the Hechinger Institute on Education and the Media was founded in 1996 by Arthur Levine, former president of Teachers College, Columbia University and named after the late Fred M. Hechinger, a former education editor at The New York Times and former trustee of the college. The Institute aims to equip journalists with the knowledge and skills they need to produce fair, accurate and insightful reporting. More than 1,800 journalists have attended Hechinger Institute Seminars, which are held at the college and throughout the U.S. and feature top education experts, including Teachers College faculty. The Institute also produces The Hechinger Report, a nonprofit news outlet focused on producing in-depth national education journalism as well as other publications about education designed to serve as a rich, factual, and informed resource of information and data for journalists and others concerned about education reform and knowledgeable coverage of education-related issues.
1997: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict
Carnegie Corporation of New York established the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict in May 1994 to address the looming threats to world peace of intergroup violence and to advance new ideas for the prevention and resolution of deadly conflict. With the leadership of Corporation president Dr. David Hamburg (1982-1997), the Commission examined the principal causes of deadly ethnic, nationalist, and religious conflicts within and between states and the circumstances that foster or deter their outbreak. Taking a longterm, worldwide view of violent conflicts that had and/or were likely to emerge, it sought to determine the functional requirements of an effective system for preventing mass violence and to identify the ways in which such a system could be implemented. The Commission examined the strengths and weaknesses of various international entities in conflict prevention and considered ways in which international organizations might contribute toward developing an effective international system of nonviolent problem solving. The Commission’s Final Report, Preventing Deadly Conflict, published in December 1997, focused on specific questions that remain relevant in the 21st century, such as: What are the problems posed by “deadly conflict” within or between states? Why is outside help necessary to deal with this problem? And, how should that help be structured in terms of political, economic, military and social resources? The Commission itself concluded its work in 1999, but was succeeded by the Conflict Prevention Project at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, which built on the Commission’s findings.
1998: Digital Opportunity INvestment Trust
Recognizing the need to ensure that new digital technologies would be harnessed to advance the public interest, in 1998, Lawrence K. Grossman, former president of NBC News and PBS and Newton Minow, former chair of the Federal Communications Commission, PBS, and former chair of the Carnegie Corporation Board, worked with the Corporation and the Twentieth Century Fund to convene a group of leaders from schools, universities, libraries, museums and public broadcasting companies across the country to explore this issue. As a result, the Digital Opportunity Investment Trust (DO IT) was established to formulate recommendations for developing related programs and policies. In 2008, with bipartisan support, Congress built on DO IT’s work by creating the National Center for Research in Advanced Information and Digital Technologies to “to support a comprehensive research and development program to harness the increasing capacity of advanced information and digital technologies to improve all levels of learning and education.” In 2011, these efforts were furthered by the White House and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, who announced the launch of “Digital Promise,” http://www.digitalpromise.org a new national effort supported by the Department of Education, the Corporation, the Hewlett Foundation, and the National Science Foundation. The aim of Digital Promise is to support research that is developing next-generation learning environments. In addition, a number of private-sector partners have announced an array of related efforts, including an initiative by schools and school districts to improve educational outcomes through the wider use of effective teaching and learning technologies; the launch of a new national alliance of top education-policy researchers focused on improving outcomes among the nation’s disadvantaged children; and a number of new challenges and prizes for the development of video games and other forms of digital entertainment that spur learning and interest in science, math, and engineering.
At the height of the dot-com boom, Jay Backstrand, a young Silicon Valley insider with a social conscience, first witnessed the power of the Internet to get big groups of people involved in vital community causes. He dreamt of starting a website to expand that human capacity long-term and nationwide, recruiting three of his best friends to help make it happen. It was the right idea at the right time, and in 1998 they launched VolunteerMatch — now the country’s biggest, most popular Web-based volunteer recruiting service — which has since racked up more than 3.67 million referrals of “good people to good causes.” The Corporation, — along with Atlantic Philanthropies and the David and Lucile Packard, Surdna and John S. and James L. Knight foundations — was an early supporter of the cutting edge nonprofit, providing $800,000 to help get the enterprise off the ground and adding another $150,000 several years on to fund its efforts to become self-sustaining.
1999: Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union
The Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union (HEFSU) initiative was launched in response to the deterioration of Russian academia due to diminished governmental funding following the collapse of the Soviet Union. HEFSU’s objectives were to strengthen research, scholarship and publications in the social sciences and the humanities, create research fellowship opportunities for post-Soviet scholars in Russia, Eurasia, and in the United States, and provide training to build up the administrative capacity of institutions of higher learning.
1999: United Nations Oral History Project
To bridge the knowledge gap regarding the UN’s contribution to world peace and progress, the Corporation funded the United Nations Oral History Project at the request of Secretary General Kofi Annan. Comprising a series of oral histories and scholarly books, the project aims to build public awareness of the UN as an incubator of world-changing ideas in such areas as finance, gender roles, poverty elimination, and human rights. Funding was also provided by the Ford, Rockefeller, MacArthur, Dag Hammarskjöld, and UN Foundations, and by several donor countries.
2000: Partnership for Higher Education in Africa
The Partnership for Higher Education in Africa was established, with the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford, MacArthur and Rockefeller foundations as charter members. The Partnership, whose mission is to work together to improve the educational capacity of selected African universities, had already well exceeded its announced goal of providing $100 million in five years.
2000: Social Inequality
On the cusp of the 21st century, Carnegie Corporation of New York partnered with the Russell Sage Foundation to explore a topic high on America’s agenda: income inequality and the social impact of this growing inequity. A Corporation grant of $1.5 million helped to commission forty-eight social scientists organized into six working groups who examined whether recent increases in economic inequality have, in fact, exacerbated social inequities in a way that might make the widening gap between rich and poor Americans difficult to reverse. The first stage of the research was published in the report Social Inequality (Russell Sage Foundation, 2004), which noted that the danger represented by the current economic divisions in our society may indeed set in motion a self-perpetuating cycle of social disadvantage. In the subsequent stages of the program, the Russell Sage Foundation has turned to in-depth examinations of the key institutions the United States relies on to counteract market-driven inequality: public education and the democratic electoral system. One outcome of this work is the book, Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality and the Uncertain Life Chances of Low-Income Children (Fall 2011), will examine how such factors as family functioning, neighborhood conditions, and local labor markets impact schools’ ability to improve the academic achievement and educational attainment of disadvantaged students. Today, given the economic challenges facing Americans across all levels of society, it is increasingly important that all our nation’s children be given the opportunity to access top-quality education that will help them start on the road to becoming effective and successful members of our democracy.
2000: Water Security
The Corporation provided funding to facilitate resolution of water and related security issues troubling South Asia, particularly in India and Pakistan. This joint project of Johns Hopkins University and research group Global Environment and Energy in the 21st Century employed unofficial diplomacy to win cooperation on water needs in the region.
2001: Centers for Advanced Study and Education
Centers for Advanced Study and Education in Russia and other former Soviet states were set up to stimulate research and publications through fellowships, conferences and >similar endeavors. Aimed at strengthening higher education, with access to the Internet and connections to Western academic communities, their emphasis is on the social sciences and the humanities.
2001: James R. Hunt, Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy
The James R. Hunt, Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy was founded to promote education reform by helping governors, along with other leaders in the field, to develop, implement, and sustain their education agendas. In addition the Corporation, it is funded by the Atlantic Philanthropies, Wallace, Bill & Melinda Gates, and Broad Foundations, among others. The Institute provides consultative services and convenes symposia on education issues led by experts in policy and practice.
2001: Nuclear Threat Initiative
The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) was founded in 2001 by Ted Turner and former Senator Sam Nunn, who went on to serve as co-chairs of the organization. The Corporation makes grants to the NTI to help advance its goal of eventually ridding the world of nuclear weapons. In April 2009, the once unimaginable prospect of a world free of nuclear threats became an official U.S. policy goal. It was announced by President Barack Obama in a landmark speech in which he declared: “Today, I state clearly and with conviction America's commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons.” NTI’s efforts have flourished even beyond that ultimate endorsement of the organization’s vision by the president of the United States. A seminal 2007 Wall Street Journal op-ed by former Secretary of State George Shultz along with Nunn, former Defense Secretary William Perry and former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, gained significant political traction for the idea that ridding the world of nuclear weapons not only can be achieved, but must be.
2001: Scholarships for Women in Africa
As part of its work on strengthening African universities, the Corporation established scholarship programs serving female undergraduates in South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Nigeria, and Ghana, as well as gender equity efforts within select universities receiving funds for capacity building. This two-pronged strategy was intended to hep individual women while inculcating support for women students, professors, administrators, and staff into the culture of African universities. More than 2,250 undergraduates received such aid from the Corporation between 2001 and 2007.
2002: African Libraries
Recognizing that most African libraries were underfunded and incapable of providing modern services, the Corporation undertook a program to establish and revamp public libraries in South Africa and to strengthen libraries in selected universities there as well as in Uganda, Tanzania, Ghana, and Nigeria. As a result, model public libraries have been created in the South African cities of Johannesburg, Pietermaritzburg, and Capetown, and in Tshwane (also known as Pretoria). Government investment has increased and services to patrons have expanded significantly in these cities, while university libraries have also upgraded their technology with Corporation support.
2002: Carr Center
Although not often publicized, the quest for self-determination has played a role in every major U.S. military intervention since the end of the Cold War, including the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Increasingly, the military’s role in such interventions has overlapped and sometimes clashed with that of human rights and humanitarian organizations. In an attempt to bridge the practical and philosophical divide between these communities, Harvard University’s Carr Center for Human Rights Policy received support from the Corporation for an unprecedented series of meetings with top officials from both NGOs and human rights activists. The effort won praise from participants from both side and follow-up work continues in creating ongoing dialogues and producing publications that both explore these issues and attempt to develop urgently needed solutions that can be employed in regions across the globe.
2002: Four Freedoms Fund
Supporting immigrant integration, the Four Freedoms Fund is a collaboration of the Corporation, the Open Society Institute, the Evelyn and Walter Haas, Jr. Fund, and the Ford, the Joyce, and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundations. The Fund has distributed grants totaling $12 million to advocacy groups supporting immigrants’ rights and promoting integration of immigrants into their communities.
2002: Help America Vote Act
After the 2000 presidential election, it became clear that there were many problems with the different voting mechanisms used across the nation. To address these issues, in 2001 the Corporation funded a joint research project of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) aimed at developing new voting technologies that would lead to a secure and affordable uniform voting system that could be employed throughout the fifty states. The resulting report called for investment by the federal government in research and development of voting equipment technologies as well as an independent agency to oversee performance and testing. The 2002 Help America Vote Act (HAVA) was largely an outgrowth of this project.
2003: The Civic Mission of Schools
In partnership with the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE) at the University of Maryland, Carnegie Corporation published the report The Civic Mission of Schools as part of an effort to restore civics to the K-12 curriculum. The Corporation has also funded advocacy efforts toward this goal on the local and national levels.
2003: Jefferson Science Fellows Program
The U.S. Department of State established the Jefferson Science Fellows Program to engage the American science, technology, and engineering communities in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy. Tenured academic scientists and engineers from U.S. institutions of higher learning are eligible; each fellow spends one year advising the U.S. Department of State or the U.S. Agency for International Development on rapidly advancing areas of science and technology. The program represents an important partnership between the Corporation, the MacAurthur Foundation, the U.S. academic community, professional scientific societies, and the Department of State.
2006: Track II Diplomacy
Building upon its Cold War era achievement of an informal communications network among Soviet and American leaders, the Corporation played a major role in supporting a series of unofficial diplomatic dialogues with representatives of the United States, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, and other regional powers. These talks ultimately led to improved bilateral relations and a decisive breakthrough for the resumption of the nuclear six-party talks, according to North Korea’s ambassador to the United Nations. Earlier Track II talks with Pakistan and India aimed to persuade the two nuclear powers to work together to establish security and, in 2008, in the absence of official interaction, informal dialogues were initiated with representatives of Iran.
2006: United Nations Peacebuilding Commission
The UN Peacebuilding Commission seeks to fill a critical gap within the UN by coordinating international and interagency efforts to create sustainable political and economic institutions in states emerging from conflict. Established with Corporation support, the Commission aims to provide an integrated approach to post-conflict peacebuilding strategies and to facilitate dialogue among key actors.
2007: Carnegie China Program
The Carnegie China Program was established by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace with $3 million in support from Carnegie Corporation and others. Based on its highly successful Carnegie Moscow Center and located in Beijing, the Endowment is creating a global think tank. The China Program’s mission is to advance and promote scholarly exchange between China, the U.S. and other countries.
2007: New Century High Schools
The Corporation provided $10 million in a second phase of its New Century High Schools initiative to better prepare more than 30,000 New York City students for college and meaningful employment through school leadership development as well as more academically rigorous curricula. The grant was awarded to New Visions for Public Schools, a nonprofit working in partnership with the New York City Department of Education to build on the Corporation-led earlier work in urban high school reform.
2008: Africa Regional Initiative in Science and Education
Underscoring the importance of indigenous science, technology and engineering capacity to the reduction of poverty and to economic and social development in Africa, the Corporation supported the establishment of the Africa Regional Initiative in Science and Education (RISE) to help increase the number of well-trained university faculty capable of teaching the next generation of African scientists and engineers.
2008: The Humanities in Africa
Building on investments made in African higher education since the 1930s and recognizing the need to support the enrichment of research and learning in the humanities at African universities, Carnegie Corporation is providing a four-year, $5 million grant to the American Council of Learned Societies to work with a variety of African universities and other organizations to develop scholarly capacity in the humanities. The funds are supporting two hundred doctoral and postdoctoral fellowships for researchers and current faculty in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda who, because of their teaching load, have little time to devote to research and publication. In addition, the grant is helping to establish a knowledge network for humanities researchers and faculty, in part by engaging eminent scholars to lead research-design and writing workshops, advise on program progress, and maintain oversight of research quality. To combat the isolation that so often plagues scholars in Africa, the initiative promotes contact and cooperation among scholarly communities in Africa and other parts of the world.
2009: Bibliotheca Alexandrina
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina — otherwise known as the Library of Alexandria in Egypt — received a $1 million grant from the Corporation to undertake the print and electronic publication of 100 books and selections from the history of modernist or reformist thought (up until the mid 20th century) that emerged from Muslim societies. The goal of the project is to broaden the public’s understanding of the diverse histories of Muslim societies and thought for both Muslims and non-Muslims alike.
2010: English Language Learners
Most educators agree that language acquisition is the key to individual students’ educational success and to the nation’s future economic prosperity. Developing English language skills, however, is a challenge for a significant number of American students. More than one in ten of all preK-12 students in the U.S.—totaling over 5.3 million children—are English Language Learners, yet common assumptions about this rapidly expanding population are often incorrect. The majority of these youngsters are not immigrants: over 75 percent of elementary students classified as English Language Learners were born in the U.S. Although the largest groups are in California, Texas, New York, Florida, and Arizona, English Language Learners are a growing presence throughout the country, with the fastest growing populations in South Carolina, Indiana, Nevada, Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia and Delaware. And many of America’s schools are not yet able to serve these millions of students effectively, according to a new report, Investing in Our Next Generation. Carnegie Corporation supported the Grantmakers for Education briefing “Addressing the Educational Opportunities and Challenges Facing English Language Learners” upon which much of the report is based. Investing in Our Next Generation is a clarion call to grantmakers, educators, business leaders, policymakers and others to expand their collective efforts to improve learning outcomes for English Language Learners to ensure that all members of the next generation of Americans has the academic skills to succeed.