Measures of Change: The Demography and Literacy ofDownload
In 2002, passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act marked a turn in the nation's approach to educating children who do not speak English well, many of whom are immigrants or the children of immigrants. NCLB placed new responsibilities on schools and states to teach children English, make sure they attain academic proficiency, and ultimately, succeed in school. At the same time, at the dawn of the 21st century, the population of students who did not speak English well grew to record highs, and changes in the labor market signaled that high-skilled students would be in ever-growing demand in a knowledge-based economy. Taken together, these developments the new mandates of NCLB, the growing diversity of America's students, the increasing demand for a skilled workforce, and knowledge of English as a prerequisite for full civic participation in the society raise a number of important questions: Who are immigrant students and students who do not speak English well? Where are they from? What is their family background (social, economic, linguistic, etc.)? How well do they do in school? Do their literacy levels prepare them to take part in higher education and a skilled workforce?
Citation: Batalova, J., Fix M., and Murray, J. (2007). Measures of Change: The Demography and Literacy of Adolescent English Learners A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.