Class of 2004 Carnegie Scholars Announced

FIFTEEN SCHOLARS CHOSEN FOR INNOVATIVE SCHOLARSHIPS IN EDUCATION, INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, STRENGTHENING U.S. DEMOCRACY AND INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY

Carnegie Corporation of New York announced the appointment of the latest class of Carnegie Scholars, each of whom will receive up to $100,000 for a period of up to two years to pursue research advancing the strategic work of the Corporation. They join 52 others awarded fellowships since 2000.

This year’s fifteen scholars, chosen in a highly competitive process, will explore issues critical to economic growth and human development, the American electoral process, political theory of international law, school reform in an international perspective, a reconsideration of the Iran hostage crisis, the logic of suicide terrorism, local control and federal reform of education, how U.S. transatlantic relations can remain relevant and effective, Hispanic students’ achievements in elementary education, justice in education, political obligations in World War I America, the rise of far-right extremist groups and the role masculinity plays in their resurgence, the role of the United States in the 21st century, and the rebirth of democracy in Iraq.

“The annual announcement of the Carnegie Scholars is an opportunity to celebrate original and creative thinking on a wide array of social issues important to the Corporation’s strategies,” said Vartan Gregorian, president of Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Gregorian inaugurated the Scholars Program in 1999 to support innovative andpathbreaking scholarship on issues related to the Corporation’s four program areas. “It was my concern with understanding not only our rights as Americans but also our obligations to our nation and our communities that led me to establish a specific niche for scholarship at the Corporation by recognizing and supporting scholars of vision, with the intent not only of increasing knowledge but also to use the insights gained from the scholars’ work to inform and enrich the foundation’s programs. I believe that excellent scholarship is a prerequisite for solid policy research and, ultimately, effective social change.”

THE 15 CARNEGIE SCHOLARS, THEIR INSTITUTIONS AND RESEARCH TITLES ARE:

Larry Bartels, Princeton University
“Promoting Public Understanding of the American Electoral Process”

Bill Berkeley, Columbia University 
“The Iran Hostage Crisis”

Harry Brighouse, University of Wisconsin
“Justice in Education: Principles and Institutional Reform”

Christopher Capozzola, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
“Uncle Sam Wants You: Political Obligations in World War I America”

Adeed Dawisha, Miami University of Ohio
“The Resuscitation of Iraqi Democracy”

Oona A. Hathaway, Yale Law School
“Between Power and Principle: A Political Theory of International Law”

Michael Kimmel, State University of New York, Stony Brook
“Globalization and its Mal(e)contents: The Gendered Moral and Political Economy of the Extreme Right”

Michael Mandelbaum, Johns Hopkins University
“America the Hegemon: The United States in the World of the Twenty-First Century”

Robert A. Pape, University of Chicago
“The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism”

Charles M. Payne, Duke University
“School Reform in International Perspective”

Richard H. Pildes, New York University Law School
“The Constitutionalization of Democratic Politics”

Gustav Ranis, Yale University
“The Relationship Between Economic Growth and Human Development”

Sean F. Reardon, The Pennsylvania State University
“Hispanic Students’ Achievement in the Elementary Grades”

Douglas S. Reed, Georgetown University
“Local Control and Federal Reform of Education: The Politics of Implementing No Child Left Behind”

Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall, Stanford University
“Transforming Transatlantic Relations: A New Agenda for a New Era”Project descriptions for each scholar are attached to this release.

The Corporation names up to 20 Carnegie Scholars annually. Fellowships are awarded for a period of up to two years, depending upon the nature and design of the research. The maximum amount of the award is $100,000. At the end of each fellowship, Carnegie Scholars will submit written reports to the Corporation, which may then assist in disseminating those results.

Scholars Program candidates are identified by a distinguished pool of nominators and then evaluated by committees including both Carnegie Corporation program leaders and external advisors. Four external academic advisors reviewed the final proposals and recommended the selection of awardees to the president. “Criteria for selection were based on stringent academic standards and the relevance of the project to Corporation program priorities,” said Neil Grabois, vice president and director for strategic planning and program coordination at Carnegie Corporation of New York, who facilitated the various levels of deliberations. “The program’s definition of excellence incorporates demonstrating intellectual risk-taking, framing unusual questions, possessing the capacity to communicate clearly and effectively on complex themes and advancing scholarship in the Corporation’s programs.” 

From an initial group of 144 nominees, 54 were invited to provide complete proposals. Fifteen finalists were approved by the president and presented to Carnegie Corporation’s board of trustees.

Patricia Rosenfield, chair of Carnegie Corporation’s Scholars Program and special advisor to the vice president and director for strategic planning and program coordination, noted that, “This new group of scholars is a strong collection of extraordinarily creative individuals. We hope the awards will enable them to explore lines of inquiry that move beyond the parameters of the institutional grants program and provide them with new freedom and opportunity to use their imaginations and arrive at fresh ideas that can advance social issues.”

Carnegie Corporation of New York was created by Andrew Carnegie in 1911 to promote "the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding." As a grantmaking foundation, the Corporation seeks to carry out Carnegie's vision of philanthropy, which he said should aim "to do real and permanent good in the world." The Corporation's capital fund, originally donated at a value of about $135 million, had a market value of $1.8 billion on September 30, 2003. The Corporation awards grants totaling approximately $80 million a year in the areas of education, international peace and security, international development and strengthening U.S. democracy.

2004 CARNEGIE SCHOLARS PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

LARRY BARTELS

Donald E. Stokes Professor of Public and International Affairs
Princeton University
Princeton, NJ

“Promoting Public Understanding of the American Electoral Process”

Bartels, an accomplished scholar of politics and public affairs, will highlight how American elections actually work, and how election outcomes shape the lives of ordinary citizens. He will base his arguments on the fact that elections are substantive political struggles with outcomes that are primarily determined not by which candidate has the cleverest “spin,” the biggest bankroll, the slickest ads or the most charisma, but by the state of the country, the enduring bipartisan loyalties of the electorate and the positions of the candidates on major issues of public policy. In the months leading to the 2004 election, he will write op-ed pieces, conduct interviews and plan a major conference to attempt to reorient public thinking about the electoral process. In the months following the election, he proposes to complete a non-technical book examining the lessons of 2004 in light of recent scholarly work on the electoral process. His overall aim is to elevate the level of public discourse about American campaigns and elections, making it simultaneously more realistic and more supportive of healthy civic engagement.

BILL BERKELEY

Adjunt Professor of International Affairs
Columbia University
New York, NY

“The Iran Hostage Crisis”

Berkeley is a scholar-journalist whose research, reporting and writing penetrate to the core of important public issues. He plans to write a book about the Iran hostage crisis as seen from the vantage point of a generation later. It will focus on the careers of the surviving Iranian hostage-takers who are now middle-aged, some of whom have emerged as prominent figures in Iran’s embattled reformist movement, in vehement opposition to the ruling clerics in whose name they acted in their youth. Several have been jailed. One, a journalist, has been in solitary confinement for the last year, accused, in part, of spying for the United States. Another was shot and critically wounded by state agents. A third is now the highest-ranking woman in President Mohammad Khatami’s Reformist cabinet. The aim of Berkeley’s book is to reexamine the Iran hostage crisis—which became a historic confrontation—with the benefit of hindsight, using the reporting and narrative tools of a working journalist.

HARRY BRIGHOUSE

Professor of Philosophy and Affiliate Professor of Education Policy Studies
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, WI

“Justice in Education: Principles and Institutional Reform”

Brighouse has a distinguished record of scholarship and public service on issues of education and justice. He will use his fellowship to write a book titled Justice in Education: Principles and Institutional Reform in which he will consider the implications of justice principles for school system governance and school curricula. He will elaborate and defend a theory of social justice in education and evaluate structural and curricular school reforms that are currently at the forefront of education policy in the United States (e.g., education for democratic citizenship, religious education, statewide or national standards) in the light of this theory. He will approach the topic by examining domestic and international educational reforms and illuminating significant contextual differences that may affect justice outcomes.

CHRISTOPHER CAPOZZOLA

Assistant Professor of History
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA

“Uncle Sam Wants You: Political Obligations in World War I America”
Capozzola, a specialist on the political and cultural history of the United States from 1861 to 1945, is working on a book titled Uncle Sam Wants You: Political Obligations in World War I America, in which he will combine political theory and social history to explore political obligation in the United States during World War I. He aims to demonstrate, through his research, the centrality of obligation in American political life in the 20th century. His work will examine military conscription and its enforcement, voluntary associations and their dual roles in war mobilization and homefront repression, and the rise of legal understandings of civil liberties and citizenship rites. Along with the completion of the book, he plans to use his research to publish general-interest teaching materials on democratic citizenship in wartime.

ADEED DAWISHA

Professor of Political Science
Miami University of Ohio
Oxford, OH

“The Resuscitation of Iraqi Democracy”

Dawisha is a scholar of international repute specializing in democratization and Middle Eastern politics. In the first part of his project, he will conduct a historical inquiry into the role political institutions have played since Iraq became a state in 1921. He will evaluate the relatively liberal and pluralistic institutions that existed in the monarchcal period (1921-1954), and then analyze the fault lines and weaknesses that eventually led to the demise of the liberal phase and its replacement by four decades of authoritarian rule. The second part of his project builds on the first. He will explore, in his book-length, manuscript, the democratic forms and modalities that would be best suited to post-Saddam Iraq in the light of the country’s historical and social imperatives.

OONA A. HATHAWAY

Associate Professor
Yale Law School
New Haven, CT

“Between Power and Principle: A Political Theory of International Law”

Hathaway, a talented young scholar studying international law and politics, will examine why states commit to and comply with international law. She intends to put forward a theory of international law that builds upon existing international legal and political science scholarship, yet moves beyond it in emphasizing the role of domestic institutions and non-legal incentives, as well as the reciprocal influence of states’ commitment decisions on their compliance behavior. To test her theoretical predictions about state behavior, she will collect and analyze extensive data in three areas—human rights, the environment and trade. She will then use the findings of her research to write a book and academic articles drawing conclusions about how international law can be designed more effectively.

MICHAEL KIMMEL

Professor of Sociology
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY

“Globalization and its Mal(e)contents: The Gendered Moral and Political Economy of the Extreme Right”

Kimmel is an eminent sociologist working on gender and masculinity studies. His proposed research will provide a comparative analysis of far-right extremist groups in the U.S., Scandinavia and Britain and will emphasize how the concept of masculinity is employed in the alarming resurgence of such groups. Based on extensive archival research and more than 100 interviews with leaders and participants, as well as with law enforcement and public officials, he shows how groups members see their situation in gendered terms, and use masculinity to criticize “others” as well as to recruit new members. Drawn largely from declining lower-middle-class families, these groups mobilize “whiteness” in the service of repairing a damaged masculinity and restoring a sense of male entitlement, he finds. He will use his award to complete his research and write a book along with a series of scholarly and more popular articles based on the research.

MICHAEL MANDELBAUM

Professor and Director of the Department of American Foreign Policy
Johns Hopkins University 
Washington, D.C.

“America the Hegemon: The United States in the World of the Twenty-First Century”

Mandelbaum, an American foreign policy expert, intends to write a book arguing that the United States performs, for the society of sovereign states, tasks similar to those that governments carry out within their countries. The book will analyze how the United States came to be in this position; describe in detail the American role in both international security affairs and in the global economy; explore the obstacles, both within and outside the United States, to the continuation of the American role; and discuss the alternatives to it. He will tackle the question of how to share the burden of global governance more broadly; that is, how to carry out in a more collective fashion the governmental tasks that the United States now discharges largely alone. Beyond his book, Mandelbaum intends to disseminate his findings through print media, radio and television.

ROBERT A. PAPE

Associate Professor of Political Science
University of Chicago
Chicago, IL 60637

“The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism”

Pape, a political scientist, intends to produce a book-length project, entitled The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, an exploration into the social bases of terrorist activity worldwide. He acknowledges the fact that suicide terrorism has been on the rise around the world for two decades, but there is great confusion as to why; and many such attacks—including those of September 11th, 2001—have been perpetrated by Muslim terrorists, leading many to an explanation that presumes that Islamic fundamentalism is the central cause. However, this assumptive connection between suicide terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism is misleading, and may be encouraging domestic and foreign policies that are likely to worsen America’s situation, he explains. As part of his study, he proposes to compile and analyze the universe of suicide terrorist attacks worldwide from 1980 to 2002—188 in all. His preliminary data has shown that there is little connection between suicide terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism, or any religion for that matter. He has found that that what all suicide terrorist campaigns have in common is a specific secular and strategic goal: to compel liberal democracies to withdraw military forces from territory that the terrorists claim to be their homeland. His book will therefore present a comprehensive theory elucidating the conditions that have generated suicide terrorism in the past in order to better forecast when it is likely to emerge in the future. It will also make concrete recommendations for democratic states to promote their security and protect their individual liberties without producing an incentive structure for terrorists.

CHARLES M. PAYNE

Dalton Professor of African American Studies, History and Sociology
Duke University
Durham, NC

“School Reform in International Perspective”
Payne, an established scholar on urban education and on the recent historical experience of African Americans in the South, will build on his interest in urban education reform and educational inequalities to look at education reforms in international settings in order to illuminate the challenges to urban school reform in the United States. Based on the premise that educators who are working to improve schools for disadvantaged children in this country tend to know little about similar struggles elsewhere, his project will compare the reform discourse in other countries to the discussion in the United States, with particular emphases on how racial and ethnic differences in achievement manifest themselves. His research will involve four case studies: West Indians in Britain, Algerians in France, the Roma in Central Europe and both Koreans and Burakumin in Japan. Based on his research, he intends to write a book, aimed at educators, policymakers and the general public.

RICHARD H. PILDES

An-Bryce Professor of Law
New York University Law School
New York, NY

“The Constitutionalization of Democratic Politics”

Pildes, a leading theorist of public law and a specialist in legal issues affecting democracy, proposes to research and write a book-length study on the relationship between democratic politics and constitutional law in the design of democracy itself. Building on the creation of the “law of democracy” as a field of study in its own right by himself and other scholars, he intends to produce a book that will reach a broad audience of policymakers, judges and students of democracy and constitutional law, in both the United States and other constitutional democracies. His aim is to re-direct judicial inquiry toward the question of whether the regulations of democracy foster robustly competitive politics or are a means of diminishing such competition in order to entrench existing partisan and incumbent forces.

GUSTAV RANIS

Henry L. Luce Director, Yale Center for International and Area Studies and the Frank Altschul Professor of International Economics
Yale University
New Haven, CT

“The Relationship Between Economic Growth and Human Development”

A focal point in the current efforts of accomplished economist Ranis’ work is the relationship between economic growth and human development in developing countries. He intends to examine the two-way relationship between these forces, starting with the premise that human development, defined in terms of some quality of life indices (e.g., health, literacy, life expectancy), represents the bottom line objective of human activity, while economic growth provides the necessary resources. He will therefore examine two causal chains, one running from economic growth to human development, with governments and families as main actors, the other from human development to economic growth, with the main focus on the quality of the human capital stock, the investment ratio and the choice of foreign and domestic technology. His preliminary investigation has indicated that in order to reach the desired state of mutually reinforcing upward movements in both human development and economic growth, giving sequential priority to changes in human development is essential. In order to arrive at the policy implications of this finding, he will examine the experience of various types of developing countries over four decades (1960-2000) in an attempt to isolate the critical variables determining the strength of each chain. He will disseminate his findings in both academic and policymaking circles by presenting papers at seminars and writing scholarly articles.

SEAN F. REARDON

Assistant Professor of Education and Sociology
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA

“Hispanic Students’ Achievement in the Elementary Grades”

Reardon, a promising young scholar, teaches and conducts research on educational inequality, school and residential segregation and the effects of neighborhood conditions on child and adolescent development. He plans to use his fellowship to support a program of research on the experiences, achievement and English proficiency of Hispanic children in the elementary (K-5) school years. His research will culminate in a book, and will produce detailed descriptions of Hispanic students’ achievement trajectories over the elementary school years, with particular attention to how these trajectories differ by immigrant generation, country of origin and English proficiency. His research will also produce estimates of the causal effects of classroom language and instructional practices on Hispanic students’ achievement and English proficiency in order to develop evidence-based policy recommendations to improve educational opportunities for Hispanic students. He will use statistical analyses as well as case studies and qualitative interviews conducted in a group of schools serving large proportions of Hispanic immigrant students to inform his research.

DOUGLAS S. REED

Associate Professor of Government
Georgetown University
Washington, D.C.

“Local Control and Federal Reform of Education: The Politics of Implementing No Child Left Behind”

Reed, an accomplished political scientist, asks the question: What is the meaning of local control in public education in the United States today? He seeks to understand how, given the U.S.’s historical commitment to local control, the recent No Child Left Behind Act is reshaping the norms, institutions, practices and rhetoric of local control of education as it builds a robust accountability structure for America’s schools and school districts. By examining the local sources of opposition to the Title I school choice and school restructuring features of No Child Left Behind and exploring school district and state-level implementation of the act, he proposes to come to a clearer understanding of the possibilities and limitations of a federal-led education reform that significantly alters the traditional localist orientation of public education. He will publish his findings both in a book and other academic and policy-oriented articles.

ELIZABETH SHERWOOD-RANDALL

Senior Research Scholar
Stanford University
Stanford, CA

“Transforming Transatlantic Relations: A New Agenda for a New Era”

Sherwood-Randall, a leading expert on national security issues and U.S. foreign and defense policy, plans to develop a policy study on the future of U.S. transatlantic relationships. She will base her study on the following assumptions: for more than half a century, the U.S. has invested in building strong international alliances to protect American security; the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been the anchor of the U.S. network of relationships, binding democracies together to face common challenges; today NATO’s future is in doubt, and the bilateral relationships that constitute it are severely strained; paradoxically, America needs allies and partners now more than ever. Her study will therefore seek to understand the elements of continuity and change in the global security environment in order to determine whether and how NATO can remain relevant and effective. She intends to publish the results of her study in a journal-length article as well as a variety of policy memoranda for appropriate officials at the U.S. National Security Council, State Department, Department of Defense, U.S. Congress, U.S. Mission to NATO.