Carnegie Corporation of New York Awards $1.5 Million to 16 "Scholars of Vision"

THE 2ND CLASS OF CARNEGIE SCHOLARS CHOSEN FOR INNOVATIVE SCHOLARSHIP IN EDUCATION, INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, STRENGTHENING U.S. DEMOCRACY, AND INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY

Sixteen leading researchers, including emerging and recognized scholars at American universities and a think tank, have been named to the 2nd class of Carnegie Scholars in 2001. The fellowships have been awarded in recognition of their innovative scholarship in areas of interest to the Corporation. Each of the scholars, chosen in a highly competitive process, will receive up to $100,000 over the next two years to pursue subjects advancing the strategic work of the Corporation.They will explore issues critical to education reform, campaign reform, widening global income gaps, dangers of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, conflict resolution among new nations, reform of international organizations, economic growth and development and the political and economic questions facing Russia and Africa.

"We want to encourage and support scholars of vision who ask the tough questions, analyze the intractable problems facing the country and the world and seek to find new ways of stimulating positive social change that advance our goals," said Vartan Gregorian, president of Carnegie Corporation of New York. Gregorian inaugurated the Scholars program in 1999 with an aim to support path-breaking research that expands the intellectual margins of the Corporation's program areas. "We believe individual scholarship is an important asset in our democratic process where new policy solutions must be supported by credible research and analysis."

The 16 Carnegie Scholars of 2001 represent both senior and younger scholars. "Because we understand that successful innovation may come from either reliable sources or yet-untapped talent, we wanted our scholars search process to identify both established and emerging experts in the relevant fields," said Gregorian.

The 16 Carnegie Scholars, their institutions and research titles are:

Robert Bates, Harvard University
"Study of the Political and Economic Determinants of Africa's Development Experience, With Emphasis on Governance and Conflict"

Diane Davis, New School University
"Public vs. Private Security Forces and The Rule of Law: The Transformation of Policing in South Africa, Russia, and Mexico"

Georgi Derluguian, Northwestern University
"The Globalization of Mafia Enterprise: From Diagnosis to Civil Society Counteraction"

Laura Donohue, Harvard University
"Security and Freedom in the Face of Terrorism"

Jeff Faux, Economic Policy Institute
"Toward a North American Social Contract"

Benjamin Highton, University of California, Davis
"African American Representation in the U.S. Congress"

Donald Horowitz, Duke University
"Constitutional Design for Severely Divided Societies"

James Jonah, City University of New York 
"The UN in Conflict Resolution: The Role of the International Civil Servant"

Heinrich Mintrop, University of California, Los Angeles
"School Accountability in the U.S. and Germany: Learning from Common Challenges and Different Paths"

Jamie Monson, Carleton College
"Using Technology to Evaluate the Development Potential of the TAZARA Railway"

Dani Rodrik, Harvard University
"Institutions, Integration and Geography: The Analytics and Empirics of International Development"

Rogers Smith, University of Pennsylvania
"Civic Horizons: Achieving Democratic Citizenship in Modern America"

Nina Tannenwald, Brown University
"The Sociology of Danger: Weapons Stigmatization in International Politics"

Brian Taylor, University of Oklahoma
"State Power and Russia's Regions"

Sharon Weiner, Princeton University
"Our Own Worst Enemy? Bureaucratic, Organizational, and Political Constraints on U.S. Efforts to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons Expertise in the Former Soviet Union"

Amy Stuart Wells, University of California, Los Angeles 
"In Search of Uncommon Schools: Charter School Reform in Historical Perspective"

Project descriptions for each scholar are attached to this release.

The Corporation names up to 20 Carnegie Scholars annually, with each award lasting up to two years and providing a maximum of $100,000 in total funding. At the end of each fellowship, Carnegie Scholars will submit written reports to the Corporation, which may then assist in disseminating those results.

Nominated scholars and their research projects were evaluated by committees including both Carnegie Corporation program leaders and external advisers. "Criteria for selection were based on stringent academic standards as well as the relevance of the project to Corporation program priorities," said Neil Grabois, vice president and director for strategic planning and program coordination at Carnegie Corporation of New York, who facilitated the various levels of deliberations. From an initial group of 87 nominees, 41 were invited to provide complete project descriptions. 16 finalists were approved by Carnegie Corporation's Board of Trustees.

"The Corporation seeks to expand the role of the public intellectual, the research driven scholar who tackles ideas and issues facing the world. One of our criteria in choosing the scholars was to identify the capacity for intellectual leadership," said Patricia Rosenfield, chair of Carnegie Corporation's Scholars program and special advisor to vice president and director for strategic planning and program coordination. "This program aims to support scholars who will spark a lively discussion and debate on significant social issues."
 

2001 SCHOLARS PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

ROBERT BATES

Eaton Professor of the Science of Government
Department of Government
Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts

"Study of the Political and Economic Determinants of Africa's Development Experience, With Emphasis on Governance and Conflict"

Bates, a scholar investigating the growth of Africa's economies and the changing nature of African political systems, is going to use his scholarship to live in Africa to study the political and economicdeterminants of Africa's development experience. He believes this will enable him to interact with African scholars more efficiently whileclarifying and refining his analysis in light of the on-ground realities. The focus of his investigation will be why some countrieshave moved toward democracy in Africa while others have not, and why some countries have experienced political breakdown and violence, while others have experienced stability and peace.

DIANE DAVIS

Associate Professor and Chair
Department of Sociology
Graduate Faculty
New School University
Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts

"Public vs. Private Security Forces and The Rule of Law: The Transformation of Policing in South Africa, Russia, and Mexico"

Davis, a sociologist, is pursuing significant work that explores the explosion of crime and violence and the deterioration of the rule of law in countries that are undergoing the transition to democracy and market
economies. Building on her extensive work in Mexico City, she will expand her study of the emergence of new forms of organized violence to include Moscow and Johannesburg. Her aim is to contribute to the understanding and resolution of this disturbing state of affairs through analysis of public and private security forces and their relationship to each other. Davis will base her study on findings generated by data collection and interviews conducted in each city over a series of months.

GEORGI DERLUGUIAN

Assistant Professor 
Department of Sociology and International Studies
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois

"The Globalization of Mafia Enterprise: From Diagnosis to Civil Society Counteraction"

A native of Russia, Derluguian is a young scholar with an extensive understanding of contemporary Russia. He is currently researching the internal collapse of governing institutions in Russia and the former Soviet Republics, and the rise of private, corrupt quasi-governments, or Russian "mafias." He believes that the transnational networks of organized crime emerging today are due to the forces of underdevelopment. He is going totrace the patterns of corruption and mafia-formation in the Soviet system and recommend ways to empower civil society to fight against these "mafia-type" networks globally.

LAURA DONOHUE

Fellow
International Security Program
John F. Kennedy School of Government
Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts

"Security and Freedom in the Face of Terrorism"

Donohue is a post-doctoral fellow in the International Security Program at the John F. Kennedy School of Government doing research in the areas of democracy and international peace and security. Her research will look at how liberal, democratic governments should respond to terrorism, what are the consequences of adopting counter-terrorist measures and do these answers change in the event of terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction? She will focus on initiatives in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Turkey, South Africa and others in the international arena. Through her analysis, she will seek to make recommendations for policy that can be adopted by liberal democratic states faced by terrorist challenges.

JEFF FAUX

President
Economic Policy Institute
Washington, D.C.

"Toward a North American Social Contract"

Faux, a leader in launching the community economic development movement in the late 1960s, will examine the current status of North American economic integration, identify its social and political implications and suggest possible paths toward a broader, socially accountable and democratic vision of development in the region. His research will result in a book aimed at encouraging interested citizens in the three countries that make up NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)-the U.S., Canada and Mexico-to think about the future in continental terms, mirroring the current practice of political leaders.

BENJAMIN HIGHTON

Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science
University of California, Davis
Davis, California

"African American Representation in the U.S. Congress"

Highton, a scholar of American politics, has studied the various aspects of voting and public opinion, including the intersections between the two topics. His current research will look at representation, specifically how individual perspectives of Congress and its members are modified by partisanship, ideology, race and gender. His project will seek to provide an answer by addressing critical issues relating to the election of African American candidates and the support for African American interests in the U.S. Congress. Even though previous research has not ignored these concerns, he will attempt to resolve ongoing controversies by developing innovative research designs, analyzing previously untapped data and widely disseminating the findings both within and beyond the scholar community. By determining how the needs of African Americans are represented in Congress, he hopes to explain the links between citizens and their elected representatives.

DONALD HOROWITZ

James B. Duke Professor of Law and Political Science
Duke University School of Law
Durham, North Carolina

"Constitutional Design for Severely Divided Societies"

Horowitz, an expert in the fields of ethnic conflict and constitutional design, is asking the question, which approach can be adopted for the reduction of conflict in severely divided societies: is it guarantees of group participation or providing incentives for political moderation across group lines? He is proposing to write a book of his findings-which, given his track record, promises to attract widespread attention-challenging his own previous views on the unfeasibility of designing coherent constitutional plans in multi-ethnic societies. Based on his recent fieldwork from Fiji to Northern Ireland, Horowitz has developed some surprising and policy-laden hypotheses that would be detailed in the book.

JAMES JONAH

Senior Fellow
Ralph Bunche Institute for International Studies
City University of New York 
New York, New York

"The UN in Conflict Resolution: The Role of the International Civil Servant"

Jonah will analyze his experience as an United Nations official for many years to assess the indispensable role of the International Civil Service in the conduct of international relations. By melding personal impressions with observations through his participation in a wide array of events, developments and crises during his 30 years at the United Nations, he will demonstrate the appropriateness and viability of the concept of the International Civil Service. The project will provide insights into the political developments in the UN Secretariat over the past three decades, and as a source of lessons to students and scholars who wish to understand the workings of the Secretariat and other political organs of the UN.

HEINRICH MINTROP

Assistant Professor 
Graduate School of Education and Information Studies
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California

"School Accountability in the U.S. and Germany: Learning from Common
Challenges and Different Paths"

Mintrop, a former teacher in both Berlin, Germany and San Francisco, California, brings to his research the deep knowledge of classroom experience and the sensitivity and insight of biculturalism. His project will comparatively examine school accountability and quality control in urban schools in the U.S. and Germany. He says that even though the two systems face similar challenges, they use very different approaches to solving performance problems. He will therefore explore policy design features in terms of their effectiveness in the given national context and add to a rich international perspective on the current U.S. debate about testing and accountability.

JAMIE MONSON

Associate Professor of African History
Department of History
Carleton College
Northfield, Minnesota

"Using Technology to Evaluate the Development Potential of the TAZARA Railway"

Monson, a scholar of African history and culture, will evaluate the development potential of the TAZARA railway in Tanzania. The TAZARA railway, built with assistance from China in the early 1970s, has resulted in a thriving local and regional economy in the Kilombero valley region of Tanzania. However, since the benefits of this activity have never been measured, Monson will collect data from parcel receipts together with digital maps and use them to illustrate the role played by the railway in rural development. The project will allow planners to understand patterns of trade and settlement along the railway, making it a model for evaluating other similar transportation systems in the country and African development trends in general.

DANI RODRIK

Rafiq Hariri Professor of International Political Economy
John F. Kennedy School of Government
Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts

"Institutions, Integration and Geography: The Analytics and Empirics of International Development"

Rodrik, an influential scholar and commentator on globalization, economic development and, international trade and finance, will use a combination of cross-national statistical analysis and in-depth country studies to shed light on the fundamentals of economic growth and development. His extensive work on development and democracy, especially in Africa, will provide the framework for his research.

ROGERS SMITH

Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of Political Science
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

"Civic Horizons: Achieving Democratic Citizenship in Modern America"

Smith, an expert on constitutional law and modern legal and political theory, will study all federal statutes and judicial decisions pertaining to basic citizenship issues, analyzed through extensive examination of primary and secondary sources of information from 1912 to the present. He contends that this is a period during which U.S. citizenship laws were transformed in ways that helped strengthen the realization of American democratic principles. From this research he intends to identify the factors influencing civic democratization and the directions to pursue if it is to be preserved and extended today.

NINA TANNENWALD

Joukowsky Family Assistant Professor of International Studies (Research)
Watson Institute for International Studies
Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island

"The Sociology of Danger: Weapons Stigmatization in International Politics"

Tannenwald, a young scholar of international studies, is emerging as an important voice in the ongoing discussion of nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Her project will analyze, through a set of historical and comparative case studies, why some weapons are stigmatized or come to be defined as unacceptable or abhorrent weapons and are de-legitimized for use by "civilized nations" and why some are not. Her analysis will identify social and cultural sources of ethical attitudes towards weapons technology.

BRIAN TAYLOR

Assistant Professor of Political Science
Department of Political Science
University of Oklahoma
Norman, Oklahoma

"State Power and Russia's Regions"

Taylor, a political scientist, will examine the creation of the Russian state and the conditions necessary for it to be simultaneously effective and democratic. He will focus his research on the role that key state power institutions-specifically law enforcement structures and the "power ministries"-play at the local and regional level. The future nature of these under-explored relationships has important implications both for democratization and state-building in Russia.

SHARON WEINER

Research Associate
Center for Energy and Environmental Studies
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey

"Our Own Worst Enemy? Bureaucratic, Organizational, and Political Constraints on U.S. Efforts to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons Expertise in the Former Soviet Union"

The collapse of the Soviet Union left its nuclear, biological and chemical weapons complex scattered over half a dozen successor states and raised international concern about the security of the people with the knowledge to produce them. "Brain drain" became shorthand for the fear that scientists, engineers or technicians, who once helped make weapons of mass destruction would now sell their weapons-relevant knowledge. Weiner, trained in political science and international relations, wants to research how to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of U.S. efforts to fight brain drain from the former Soviet Union weapons of mass destruction complex by examining the politics, preferences and parochialisms of the organizations that the U.S. government has entrusted with the task.

AMY STUART WELLS

Professor of Education
Graduate School of Education and Information Studies
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California

"In Search of Uncommon Schools: Charter School Reform in Historical Perspective"

Wells is a provocative and prolific scholar of American public education and school reform. Her recent work on charter schools has received wide attention from both the scholarly and policy communities and from the popular press. Since 1995 she has been studying the evolution of American charter schools-conducting interviews, writing articles and chapters, reviewing research, and reading important works on the history of American education in an effort to better understand the larger significance of this reform movement. With her scholarship, Wells will complete a book that places charter schools within a broader historical perspective that argues that much of American education has been shaped by the struggles for and against "common schools." Her book will also highlight central themes around race, class, culture and public education at a crucial moment in the current public debate on these issues.